Saturday, November 18, 2017

A dive into Medieval India - General Knowledge Approach

Medieval India

Indian history can be classified into three broad categories, Ancient, Medieval and Modern. In the last post, we discussed Ancient India and Indus valley civilization detail. Now, we are discussing medieval history.


Marked by the beginning of Delhi, which was established after the conquest of Muhammad Ghouri. The period of Sultanate of Delhi ranges from AD 1206-1526. This is considered as the beginning of Muslim rule in India. India in this period is called Medieval India.

Important Dynasties in Medieval India

1. The Slave Dynasty
The Slave Dynasty’s period ranges from AD 1206-1290. It was founded by Qutub-ud-din Aibek, and the prominent rulers of this dynasty were Iltutmish and the only Muslim woman ruler of India, Razia Sultana.
2. The Khilji dynasty
It was founded by Jalal-Ud-din Khilji and its period ranges from AD 1290-1320. Alaud-din Khilji was one of the most prominent rulers of this dynasty.
3. The Tughlaq dynasty
It was founded by Ghiasuddin Tughlak and the period ranges from AD 1320-1414. Ibn Batuta was an important African traveler who visited India in 1333.
4. The Lodhi Dynasty
It was founded by Bahlol Lodhi and the period of the dynasty ranges from AD 1451-1526. Sikander and Ibrahim Lodhi were the other two prominent rulers belonging to this dynasty.
5. The Mughal Dynasty
One of the most important dynasties of India is Mughal dynasty, which reigned almost continuously from AD 1526-1857 (the longest period).

Important Rulers of Mughal Dynasty:

1. Babur
He is credited with the foundation of Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.
2. Humayun
He was the next emperor of Mughal empire after Babur.
3. Akbar
The most successful of Mughal emperor. An excellent leader, who separated religion and politics, started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi.
4. Jehangir
 The son of Akbar, who ascended the throne after Akbar’s death, known for his administration and strict sense of justice. He was the husband of famous Noor Jahan Begum.
5. Shah Jahan
Famous ruler and son of Jehangir, who built Taj Mahal at Agra, in the memory of his wife, Mumtaj Mahal. Jama Masjid and red Fort are the other two famous buildings that were built by him.
6. Aurangzeb
A very cruel ruler and son of Shah Jahan, who demolished several religious structures of Hindus, and ruled for about 50 years. Mughal Empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took the famous Kohinoor diamond with him to Afghanistan. Then came the Marathas who became powerful under the leadership of Shivaji. Name of Fame: Sher Shah Suri [caption id="attachment_353" align="aligncenter" width="210"] Sher Shah Suri | Image Source[/caption] He was a brilliant administrator who issued the coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta.
Important monuments built by Mughal in Medieval India:
1. Shalimar garden and Nishant Bagh by Jehangir
2. Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Agra Fort by Shah Jahan


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